The Science Behind DRS Circuits :

The science behind DRS(Dynamic Recondition System)-C  is complex, but I will try my best to break it down. When you train in the presence of enough oxygen (such as walking, light jog etc), the body will use the aerobic pathway to provide the energy it requires. When your body can no longer receive enough oxygen it then switches to a different pathway called the anaerobic pathway. In terms of DRS training (and for fat burning) this concept is key. When you work in the anaerobic pathway, such as during sprints, you begin to increase your ‘resting metabolic rate’. Your RMR is the amount of energy you use at rest, therefore the higher this is the better. This occurs by an increase in the EPOC effect (Excess Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption). Think of this as the after burn from an intense exercise session.


EPOC (Excess Post Exercise Oxygen Consumption)

Boosting the EPOC effect of exercise also has the added ability that it heightens our V02 Max. This is the amount of oxygen our body can use (ml) in one minute, per kilogram of body weight (ml/lg/min). Increasing the VO2 Max, you can therefore intake and process more oxygen, leading to enhanced performance.

Post DRS Fat Burning

DRS training doesn’t use much fat for fuel during the session (prodominantly glycogen), however afterwards, the metabolism remains high as the body begins to use fat as fuel. Post DRS, the body tries to revert back to its pre-workout state of using both glucose and fat as energy sources; however, to restore the now depleted glycogen stores, the body must conserve whatever glucose/ glycogen that remain, and to do this it means that the energy source must come from fat. This can lead to an elevated caloric expenditure for around 14-15 hours AFTER you have finished DRS training. With LISS (low intensity steady state) cardio, you lose this affect almost as soon as you are done.

DRS  Workouts

When it comes to DRS, my preferred choice is to get outside and do more body weight workout than using machines. I have researched,applied and included several DRS Training workouts.

Wide range of DRS workouts available at FiiTNESS PLUS





Feeling tired, hungry and the sensation of ‘hitting a wall’ when it comes to fat loss is extremely common. How individuals control these situations during the dieting process is what will determine the results.

As a common fact, we need to be in a calorie deficit in order to lose weight. This means the aim is to consume fewer calories than our body burns when trying to lose weight. Doing this ensures the body will utilise some body fat for energy, making up this ‘deficit’. Although these can be prevented, there are downsides to this method. Muscle mass may be burned to provide fuel, the body also increases its ability to store fat in readiness for when food is available again and appetite is heightened to drive behaviour for finding food.

What is a Refeed?

A refeed, when done properly, will be very beneficial for you. You may see people post pictures of pizza and writing ‘refeed day’; however please not that a pizza is simply a cheat meal, not a refeed. The reason a ‘cheat meal’ is often avoided when on a fat loss diet is due to Leptin, a hormone found in the body. Leptin’s main function in the body is to play a vital role in regulating hunger, food intake and energy expenditure. Think of Leptin as the mother of fat burning. If leptin levels fall, our metabolism slows down and we crave the foods we had before we started the diet, which in-tern counteracts everything we are working towards to reach our fat loss goals. A refeed will boost leptin levels back up which will result in a reduction of cravings as well as helping to continue the process of burning fat.

How to Refeed

The first thing to consider is your refeed frequency. Meal timing can be the key to keeping your metabolism firing. If you are a Mesomorph (someone with a compact and muscular build) you should eat every 2.5 – 3.5 hours. An Ectomorph (someone with a lean and delicate build) should eat every 2 – 3 hours and an Endomorph (someone with a soft round build and a high proportion of fat tissue) eat every 3.5 – 5 hours. Individuals who are below 10% body fat should incorporate refeeds two times per week. If you carry 10-15% body fat, refeed every 6-12 days and if you are above 15%, refeeding will not need to be done more than once every 12-14 days. As your body fat decreases, the more frequent refeeds should become.


When is the Best Time to Have a Refeed?

1) Refeed on the day you burn the most calories. The majority of individuals expend the most amount of energy on leg day, as this is the day when you recruit most muscle fibers in order to perform an exercise such as a squat.

2) The day you train your weakest body part, this will help push yourself to the max which in return can help growth in the muscle, as refeeding will not only raise leptin levels, but will also be anabolic.

More refeed tips:

When refeeding, it is vital to keep fat intake as low as possible as high insulin levels will increase dietary fat transport into adipose tissue. Reduce your protein intake to 1g/lb bodyweight. Consume as little fructose as possible as fructose, as well as dietary fat does not have an impact on leptin levels. When refeeding, you can actually increase calories to maintenance level or even go above by 20-50% if you are an ectomorph. Increase carbs by at least 50-100% (endomorphs stay on the low end, while ectomorphs should stay on the high end) over your daily normaldiet levels.

Men, when you increase leptin levels you will be increasing liver glycogen from all of the carbohydrates consumed, this will therefore increase testosterone, while reducing cortisol (the muscle breakdown hormone). Ladies, you should be refeeding on a regular basis to make sure a stoppage in reproduction hormones doesn’t occur, as this can be the case when lepton levels drop low enough.

What Does a Refeed Look Like?

Remember, refeeding is your time to cram in some much needed carbohydrates. You can include some of your more desired foods in the refeed, after all, this is not only going to help you boost the fat burning process but it can also release you from the restraints you feel during the dieting process. It would be best to eat good carbohydrate sources such as oats,brown rice, or sweet potatoes (the lower GI, the better). These refeed days are a really good time to monitor how your body reacts to certain carbohydrates and what works best for you. White rice may be your favourite choice of carbohydrate, however you may feel bloated after consuming. What works for someone else may not work for you, so it is best to trial and note what works and what doesn’t.


In a nut shell – calculate your refeeds and watch the fat burn off. Don’t let yourself hit a wall in your fat loss goals, try this method and make a note your results. Train smart, eat smart.


The Most Common Types Of Protein Powders

For those who got into fitness some time ago and are thinking of getting a bit more serious, the first piece of advice anyone gives them is to buy protein powder. But since there are so many types of protein powder out there I thought I’d make a short list of the most common types, and how they can help you.

The types of protein that are generally found in protein powders can be split into 2 main categories:

– Animal source proteins;

– Vegetable source proteins.

Animal source proteins include milk protein derivatives, such as casein and whey, goat’s milk and egg white protein. Vegetable source proteins include soy, rice, pea and hemp proteins.

Most Common Types Of Protein Powders

1. Whey Protein

This type of protein powder is derived from milk, and it wins the popularity contest, as it’s the most widely used type of protein powder thanks to its taste (or lack of taste, at least in the unsweetened version), quality and low cost. There are 2 varieties of whey protein, each with their own advantages:

  • Whey concentrate- it has a low lactose level and it is the most commonly bought type of whey protein powder.
  • Whey isolate- it’s virtually fat-free (perfect for those trying the keto diet), and it also has low lactose levels but compared to whey concentrate it has a much better taste. Win-win!

2. Casein Or Milk Protein

Most of the protein in milk (about 80%) is casein, so it’s not uncommon for the term “milk protein” to be used instead of “casein protein” or vice versa. But since both casein and whey come from milk, what’s the big difference?

The main difference between these two types of protein powders is the fact that whey is absorbed very quickly, and cassein is absorbes slowly. Long story short, that means whey should be taken right before, during or after your workout for maximum effects, whereas casein can be taken along the day.


3. Egg White Protein

Egg white is very low in carbs and fat, just as milk, but it’s lost some of its previous popularity due to the fact that milk protein (both whey and casein) usually have a better taste, and a significantly lower cost.

Nevertheless don’t understand that egg white protein is of no use. There are many bodybuilders who prefer this type of protein powder because it is lactose-free, so it’s an ideal source of protein for those who want to avoid dairy products.

4. Vegetable Proteins

Some of the most popular types of protein powders amongst those who prefer a vegan alternative are soy protein, pea protein and rice protein. Apart from this, soy and hemp have a lot of protein, but also 8 essential amino acids, which other vegetable proteins lack.

The advantage that vegetable proteins have to whey, casein and egg white is the fact that many of these plants hold extra benefits. For instance, soy contains isoflavones which are a strong antioxidant, thus helping with heart health benefits and much, much more.

What types of protein powder do you usually use, and what made you choose that type instead of others? Share your thoughts in the comments below.

Drinking Protein Shake Gym



Nutrition Facts That Will Make You Question Everything

Because of the Internet, everyone is a critic these days and everyone is pretty much an expert at something. Nutrition, for instance, was, is, and always will be a never-ending debate, contemplating whether some type of food or drink is bad or good for your health.

There are so many opinions flying about that the scientific truth regarding practically all dietary matters has become somewhat obscured. Well, truth be told, a diet is an individual thing, because every single one of us has a different taste pallet and biological predisposition towards certain ingredients, so no one is in a position to be absolutely right.

Nutrition Facts

We are all gourmands deep inside, we simply love to eat. It is considered to be one of the beauties of life – being able to savour all sorts of dishes from each corner of the world. Due to our current technological advancements, we don’t have to fret to acquire exotic ingredients which we cannot find in our country. Everyone has a chance to hone and expand their culinary skills nowadays.

But if you want to clarify certain myths regarding such matters, here are a few interesting nutrition facts which will shed a new light on nutrition:

1. Coffee

It is one of the most popular drinks in the world, but it is still being demonized wherever you turn. That is quite unfair, because this warm (and sometimes cold) beverage is actually quite healthy if drunk in moderation. Coffee is high in antioxidants and coffee drinkers reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s among numerous other diseases.

2. Fatty Fish

The reason why fish is good for our bodies is because it contains fats which are loaded with omega-3 fatty acids and various other nutrients. Salmon is the best example of this claim. Not only does fatty fish lower risks of all sorts of diseases, but it also helps battle dementia and depression.

3. Nuts

People have an aversion towards fats, but this macronutrient is necessary for our physical well-being. Just like anything else, once again, moderation is key, but if you want to consume the best kind of fat there is, nuts are the solution.

They also contain magnesium, fiber, vitamin E, and are really good for boosting metabolism, treating type 2 diabetes and heart disease, plus they (almonds in particular) can help you lose weight.


4. Water Is Life

Yes, the majority of our body is comprised of water, but what is even more important is that drinking it helps you activate your body and burn your calories. It is best to drink it when you wake up and about a half an hour before meals.

Only half a liter of water prior to a meal can increase metabolism by around 25%. Also, if you have a hangover, that means that you are dehydrated, so keep a bottle of water close to you when you drink alcohol.

5. Eat Your Veggies, Kids

Mom has always been right when it comes to fruit and vegetables. They are loaded with probiotic fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, so it is no wonder why people who eat them live longer. Bear in mind that fiber helps you digest food faster and helps you get rid of waste material much easier.

That is why fruit and veggies are excellent for battling obesity and they lower the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and all manner of diseases depending on what you are eating, of course.

6. Protein Is Crucial

A lot of experts claim that the average daily intake of protein, especially among kids, is too low. This macronutrient is extremely important for athletes and if your nutritionist’s coaching skills are at a professional level, you will know how to supply yourself with a sufficient amount in order to lower your blood sugar and regulate blood pressure.

Protein is the building block of muscles, so you cannot become an excellent sportsman/woman without this macronutrient to strengthen and sustain your body.

This is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to nutrition facts and culinary secrets. If you find this article interesting, then by all means, do some more research on this matter. But make sure to find proven sources about nutrition facts. Who knows what the Internet has in store for us regarding this topic and how many dietary claims are in fact false.

Also, apart from striving to eat healthy food, make sure that it tastes good, too. Don’t abandon your hedonism.

If you enjoyed these nutrition facts share them with your friends and family. Stay fit& healthy!


Beginners Guide On How To Perform A Correct Push Up

Push ups are one of the best exercises ever invented. A correct push up requires zero equipment, builds strength in all of the right places, has hundreds of variations to keep things fresh, and is easily quantifiable so keeping track of progression is a breeze.

When it comes to push ups, your form is crucial. Each push up needs to be done perfectly so that your total reps measured from workout to workout are on equal footing. If you did thirty perfect push ups two days ago, and then today you did sixty push ups by only going down halfway, sticking your ass up in the air, etc., it’s absolutely impossible to tell if you got any stronger.

How To Perform A Correct Push Up

When down on the ground, set your hands at a distance that is slightly wider than shoulder-width apart. Depending on your strength and experience, your hands should be angled in a way that feels comfortable to you. You can turn your hands inwards slightly if it’s less stressful on your wrists, or you can do your push ups on your knuckles (as long as you’re on a semi-soft surface like grass or carpet.

Your feet should be set up in a way that feels right and comfortable to you. For some, that might be shoulder width apart. For others, it might be that the feet are touching.  Generally speaking, the wider apart your feet, the more stable you’ll be for your push ups.

Think of your body as one giant straight line – from the top of your head down through your heels. Your butt shouldn’t be sticking way up in the air or sagging.

If you have a problem getting the proper form with your body, try this: clench your butt, and then tighten your abs. Your core will be engaged, and your body should be in that straight line. If you’ve been doing push ups incorrectly, this might be a big change for you.

Your head should be looking slightly ahead of you, not straight down. I read somewhere that said “if you’re doing them right, your chin should be the first part of your head to touch the floor, not your nose.” Looking up helps you keep your body in line, but feel free to look down if that helps you concentrate more.

At the top of your push up, your arms should be straight and supporting your weight. You’re now ready to do a push up.

Alright, now that you’re actually all set up and eager to begin, let’s get you through one repetition. Remember that good form is crucial, so keep your focus through each movement and start to set good habits.


How To Complete A Repetition

With your arms straight, butt clenched, and abs braced, steadily lower yourself until your elbows are at a 90 degree angle or smaller. Depending on your level of experience, age, and flexibility, 90 degrees might be the lowest you’re able to go. Personally, I like to go down until my chest (not my face), hits the floor.  That way, I know I’m going the same distance each and every time.

Try not to let your elbows go flying way out with each repetition. Keep them relatively close to your body, and keep note of when they start to fly out when you get tired.

Once your chest touches the floor (or your arms go down to a 90 degree angle), pause slightly and then explode back up until you’re back in the same position.

Congratulations, you just did a correct push up. Do as many as you can until you start to feel your form slip (even slightly); you are done for that set. Ten good push ups and 5 crappy ones are tough to quantify against eleven good push ups. If you can only do ten of something, write down your results and aim for 11 next time. Perfect form allows you to keep track of your improvements week over week.

Source :

How To Perform A Correct Squat For Better Results

It is saying the best way to get a nice, round butt is doing squats, and it’s true. Today I will share with you some tips on how to perform a correct squat, starting from the set up, the squat and up again.

There are 3 essential steps in performing a squat: starting position, the squat and the stand up. So let’s see what things should we take into consideration if we want to perform a correct squat.

3 Steps To A Correct Squat

1. The first thing we need to know when performing a squat is the starting position. If you want to do it by the book, keep in mind these tips:

  • stand straight;
  • keep your feet a little bit wider than hip width apart;
  • put your toes out slightly;
  • keep your back straight and your chest open;
  • bring your hands together at your chest level, in front of you.

2. Now what you have to do is to squat down and to be careful to fulfill these steps:

  • squeeze your abs to go down;
  • think about sitting on a chair;
  • as you squat down you should slightly look up;
  • don’t lock your knees in, they need to move in a straight line with your toes;
  • your knees should not be over your toes.

3. The last step in performing a correct squat is to stand up to the starting position. For this to happen you need to:

  • squeeze your glutes and hamstrings to pull yourself back up;
  • keep your look slightly up.

Tip: If you want to work more on your butt than on your thighs, just keep your toes parallel and pointing forward.

If you perform a correct squat you not only work on your glutes, but on your core and thighs too. Squats are great for all of you athletes out there, runners, or if you just want to straighten up those legs. And of course if you wanna perk up your booty then a squat is the best way to do that. I mean a CORRECT SQUAT is the best way to do it!

Source :


Working out twice a day is a common practice for a handful of very dedicated fitness lovers. Exercising twice a day can have many benefits that can get really bolster a ripped and muscular physique faster than ever before.

Double boost in metabolism: During exercise, your body burns fat and calories at a faster rate. The same happens even after exercise. So obviously, exercising twice a day can double that rate, which means you will be burning fat twice as fast. When you divide a workout into two separate sessions on the same day, you burn more total calories than if the whole workout had been done at the same time.

Shorter workouts: By breaking up your routine into two sessions, you can go more intense during your workout without having to worry about dragging out the workout. Therefore, you can train with more overall intensity, which is key to new strength and muscle gains.

More energy: Forget coffee. A workout in the morning will wake up your central nervous system and make you feel more energized throughout the day. Enhanced blood flow and brain stimulation are the primary mechanisms by which a workout will leave you feeling alert and invigorated.


The biggest issue surrounding two-a-days is the potential for over training. Exercising twice a day can be quite a burden on the Central Nervous System and muscular system. If you are exercising twice a day, you should workout no more than 45 minutes per session. Exercising too long can release cortisol, a stress hormone that can break down precious muscle tissue and put on unwanted fat. You should divide your workouts between cardio and weights. If you train two muscle groups at two different times of the day, you run the risk of overtraining. For example, if you are doing chest in the morning and then triceps at night then this can be potential for disaster. After your chest workout, your body has already begun the recovery process. Working your chest hits your triceps. If you work triceps a few hours later then you can be overtraining since you indirectly worked your triceps earlier. You are overstimulating the muscle, especially when it has already begun recovery. The best way to separate it is to work two completely opposite muscles at two different time periods, such as upper body and lower body or chest and back. You don’t want to work muscles that were used earlier in the day.

The best way to do a two-a-day would be to do cardio in the morning and weights at night. That way you won’t risk overstimulating a muscle and you’ll be doing two different types of workouts. Regular cardio won’t stress your body that much and you should be able to have a good weight workout at night. However, if you lift hard in the morning then your muscles may too sore to do proper cardio, especially if you are doing legs.

Keep these points in mind when you decide if doing two-a-days are right for you. Some people will really benefit from this type of training routine while others may benefit from a more traditional approach. Working out twice a day can be good or bad depending on your genetics and approach to exercise. Remember, keep your workouts to a minimum but go intense and consume the proper nutrients throughout the day.

Change Is The Key Of Getting Lean And Healthy

Either you’re a male or you’re a female, getting lean it’s all just a matter of things done more often and things done less, or even avoided permanently. So to reach a healthy level of body fat percentage, to get a firm butt, a six pack abs and a rock solid body, you’ll probably need to do more stuff than you already are.


Things To Do More For Getting Lean

Getting lean it’s not an easy process, but as long as you follow these tips, the sky is the limit (and I’m not talking about Emily Skye):

Things To Do Less For Getting Lean

Because there are so many unhealthy temptations in our social life, getting lean is not just about what to do, but more of what to do less, or what to avoid. Here are a few tips you need to consider:

  • Avoid drinks like alcohol, high-calorie coffee or any other high-calorie beverages;
  • Eat less processed foods;
  • Skip dessert;
  • Avoid eating from other reasons than hunger (you also eat when you’re bored, stressed, thirsty etc).

If you’re ready to make these adjustments, you’re ready not just to change, but to progress. You’ll improve your mood, sleep quality, overall health, physical appearance and so forth. There’s nothing else worth to compromise for, than your own health.

But if you decide these changes aren’t worth making, that’s fine. Just remember one thing:

You can not become what you want by remaining what you are.

In the end, getting lean is more of changing your habits and lifestyle, than dieting. But if you add a truly healthy diet  to these small adjustments, you might reach even less than 10% body fat. Stay fit!

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It is a fact that the most important part of any fat loss programme is diet. However, balancing a sensible focused diet with an appropriate exercise and supplement regime will greatly improve the results and decrease the time it takes to achieve your goals. Research demonstrates that combining diet with resistance training (weight training) and cardio is the most effective way to burn fat. This article will address the fundamental factors that will help you to use weight training and cardio to achieve your fat burning goals. The method of training is suitable for both men and women regardless of their body composition goals – large and muscular or lean and toned. This is because the end results of this type of training are entirely dependent upon nutrition. Simply put, if you do not eat big you will not get big!

How To Weight Train for Fat Loss

Research suggests that alternating between light and heavy weight training will help improve fat loss. Light weight training refers to training with a weight that you can manage around 12-15 repetitions of an exercise before your technique starts to deteriorate with rest periods of approximately 90 seconds between sets. Heavy weight training refers to training with a weight that you can manage around 4-6 repetitions before your technique starts to deteriorate with approximately 180 seconds rest between sets. Both of these types of weight training help to achieve fat loss in different ways – hence the necessity to alternate between the two for maximal effect. Light weight, high repetition and low rest period training will increase the heart rate during exercise and heavier weight, lower repetition training will increase your resisting metabolic rate, amongst other benefits. Combining both types of weight training will ensure you are a fat burning furnace around the clock – not only when you are in the gym.

Cardio and Fat Loss

There are other articles on here that address the benefits of steady rate cardio vs HIIT cardio and the benfeits of Fasted State cardio vs Food-fuelled cardio – so if you would like to know more I would direct your reading towards these. However, as a basic rule of thumb it is helpful to remember that the amount of calories burnt is a direct relation to the distance covered during exercise regardless of speed. However, calories burnt whilst exercising is not the same thing as total fat loss. It is for these reasons that research suggests HIIT is the most conducive means of cardio for fat loss.

Supplements and Fat Loss

There are many supplements that help with fat loss and body composition. In relation to the basic core supplements that will be most impactful for fat loss it is recommended that you look for those that either help facilitate greater exercise output during training or those that improve recovery afterwards. Therefore, four highly recommended supplements are:

  1. Whey Protein: 25-35 grams of protein upon waking and before and after exercise training.
  2. Caffeine: 30-60 minutes before cardio (200-400mg) and before weights (200-600mg).
  3. Green Tea Extract: Combined with Caffeine – (500-1000mg per dose).
  4. Glutamine: 5-10 grams upon waking, before and after exercise and before bed.

Fat Loss Summary

  • Combine weight training and cardio for greatest fat loss outcomes.
  • Choose HIIT Cardio for Fat Loss.
  • Results are a product of a good diet and exercise effort.
  • Use supplements that help boost exercise or recovery to improve results.

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For anyone looking to transform their body it is clear that diet and exercise are fundamentally important. However, nutrient timing is a hotly discussed issue and this article will provide some basic insight into what happens within our bodies when nutrients are consumed. Once carbohydrates and / or proteins are consumed the hormone Insulin is produced. Insulin is the hormone that forces glucose out of the bloodstream and into the cells of our body. Insulin is a highly anabolic agent, which means it is critical for those wanting to build muscle. However, insulin spikes at inappropriate times will dramatically increase fat storage and so for maximal lean muscle gains insulin management is key.


Insulin and Muscle Growth


Insulin is produced and released by the pancreas when you consume carbs and / or protein. Once produced it enters the blood stream and works to signal the muscle cells to absorb the nutrients flowing through the body that have been consumed at that meal.

Insulin and Fat Storage

As indicated, insulin is produced to inform the body that carbs and / or proteins have been ingested. This signals the body to reduce or stop using stored fat for energy (if sufficient time has elapsed since the previous meal to require stored fat to be used as an energy source). As with muscle cells insulin works to signal the fat cells to store the nutrients that have been consumed. Consequently, those looking to attain a lean body will need to be concerned with how to manage insulin levels to ensure muscle growth and recovery, whilst minimsing fat levels.

Insulin Management

The rate that the carbohydrates consumed pass through the digestive system is key to managing insulin. Generally speaking carbs can be divided into high GI (fast digesting) and low GI (slow digesting) classifications. If you look up the Glycemic Index, you will find an accurate breakdown of all foods in relation to their GI value. As a general rule to maximise body composition results if carbs are to be consumed they should ideally be of the low GI variety (e.g. oats, brown rice & most fruits). That said, high GI foods will spike insulin levels to a much greater extent than low GI and this is advantageous for muscle growth and exercise recovery in the post-exercise window.

Maximising the Post-Workout Window

Research suggests that the optimum dose of high GI carbs is between 25 – 60 grams and should always be combined with fast acting whey protein immediately after exercise to ensure maximal benefit and faster recovery. Insulin levels have been demonstrated to spike to a greater extent when high GI carbs are combined with fast acting whey protein during this time, which will lead to faster nutrient absorption which is particularly important after a gruelling workout.


Insulin & Carbohydrate Timing Summary

  • The greater the insulin spike the more receptive the body is to absorb and store nutrients (including as fat).
  • Insulin timing and carb management are the keys to success.
  • Low GI carbs should comprise the majority of carbohydrate intake.
  • High GI carbs should be taken post-workout.